Gray wolf or gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a species of canid native to the desert and remote areas in North America, Eurasia, and North Africa. This is the largest member of the family, with males on average 43-45 kg (95-99 lb), and females 36 to 38.5 kg (79-85 lb). This is similar in general appearance and proportions of the German shepherd, or sled dog, but has a large head, narrow chest, long legs, large vertical tail and claws. Wool long winter and heavy, and most of the gray-colored speckled, although almost pure white, red, or dark brown also occur.
In the genus Canis, gray wolf is a more specific and progressive smaller cousin (the coyote and wolf gold), as indicated by morphological adaptations for hunting large prey, nature prefers very sophisticated friends and his expressive behavior . This is a social animal, traveling in the nuclear family consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the couple's adult children. Gray wolf is a predator usually peak around the area, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it. Feed primarily on large ungulates, although also eat small animals, livestock, carrion, and garbage.
Gray wolf is one of the world's most animal well examined, the books may be more written about it than any other species of wildlife. This has a long history of contact with the man, who was hated and hunted in the agricultural community for his attacks on livestock, while otherwise respected by some Native American tribes. This is a single ancestor dogs, the first didomestikasi in the Middle East. Despite prevailing fear of wolves in many human societies, most attacks have been recorded on the animal suffering associated with rabies.
Non-rabid wolves are attacking and killing people, especially children, but this is not normal, such that relatively few wolves, stay away from the people, and have been taught to fear humans by hunters and shepherds. Hunting and traps have reduced the range of the species to around third, although coverage is still relatively broad and stable population means that the species is not threatened at the global level, and therefore classified by the IUCN as Least Concern.
Gray wolf is an animal, well-knit with slim rib, very large down and leaning back. Stomach pulled in, and the muscular neck. Legs long and strong, with a relatively small distance. Front feet have five toes each, while the hind feet have four. Forelimbs that seem pressed into the chest, with elbows pointing inwards, and legs to the outside, allowing good front and rear legs on the same side to swing in the same line.
Legs long enough wolves than other Canids. This allows the animal to move fast, and allows to overcome the thick snow covering much of the geographical area. Women tend to have a narrow snout and forehead, thin neck, slightly shorter legs and less massive shoulders than males. Compared with the smaller cousin (the coyote and golden jackal), gray wolf bigger and heavier, with a wider nose, short ears, a shorter torso and long tail.
Gray wolf head is large and heavy, with wide foreheads, strong jaws and snout, long blunt. Ears relatively small and triangular. Teeth are heavy and large, are better suited to bone crushing than Canidae is still there, even though not specifically as found in hyenas.The strong canine teeth and relatively short (26 mm). Wolf could do from 1.500 lbf/in2 pressure may crush compared with 750 lbf/in2 for German shepherds. This style is enough to break most of the bones. In cold weather, wolves can reduce blood flow near the skin to retain body heat. Warmth footpads arranged independently from the rest of the body, and maintained at just above the freezing point of the network, where the pads come in contact with ice and snow.
Gray wolves usually take head on the same level as the back, increasing only when the reminder. This usually travel at speeds loping, putting one foot directly in front of the other. This pace can be maintained for hours at the 8-9 km / hour, and allows the wolves to cover a great distance. On the street naked, wolves can quickly reach speeds of 50-60 km / hour. Hold a wolf running low and tilt the head slightly to one side, directing one ear to the other sides. This posture allows the wolf to continue to capitalize on the extraordinary hearing.
Gray wolves are the largest extant members of the Canidae, except for certain large domestic dog race. Gray wolf weight and size can vary around the world, tends to increase proportionally with latitude as predicted by Bergmann rule, with large Alaskan and Canadian wolves sometimes 3-6 times more weight than those Middle East and Asia southern cousins. On average, adult wolf size 105-160 cm (41-63 in) long and 80-85 cm (32-34 in) in shoulder height.
The tail is ⅔ length of head and body, measuring 29-50 cm (11-20 in) long. The ears are 90-110 millimeters (3.5 to 4.3 in) in height, and the hind legs is 220-250 mm. Skull average 9-11 inches long, and 5-6 inches. Weight varies geographically wolf, on average, European wolves may weigh 38.5 kilograms (85 pounds), North American wolves 36 kilograms (79 pounds) and Indian and Arabian wolves 25 kilograms (55 pounds). Women in a given wolf population typically weigh 5-10 lbs less than males.
Wolves weighing more than 54 kg (120 lbs) are rare, though very large individuals have been recorded in Alaska, Canada, and the Soviet Union. The heaviest gray wolf recorded in North America lost on 70 Mile River in east-central Alaska on July 12, 1939 and weighed 79.4 kilograms (175 pounds), while the heaviest recorded wolf in Eurasia lost after World War II in Kobeliaky, Poltavskij District, Ukrainian SSR, and weighed 86 kilograms (190 pounds).
Gray wolves have winter coats that are very compact and smooth, with short underfur and long, coarse hair guardian. Most of the underfur and some of the hair is the warehouse keeper in the spring and grow back in period.The longest hair fall occurs on the back, particularly on the front quarters and neck. Especially long hairs found on the shoulders, and almost form a crest on the top of the neck. Tuft of hair on the cheeks are elongated and form. Ears covered with very short hair projecting from the wool. Short, elastic and closely adjacent hair present on the distance from the elbow to the tendon calcanealis.
Winter fur is very resistant to cold, wolves in northern climates can rest comfortably in open areas at -40 ° by placing their nose between the hind legs and covering their faces with their tails. Wolf fur provides better insulation than dog fur, and does not collect ice when warm breath against condensed. In warm climates, the fur is coarse, rarely found than in northern wolves.
Female wolves tend to have fuzzy legs than males, and generally develop the whole mantle fine as they age. Old wolves generally have more white hair on the tip of the tail, along the nose and forehead. Wool winter's longest sustained breastfeeding women, though with some hair loss around their nipples. Long hair out of the back is 60-70 mm. Hair at shoulder length hair caregiver generally does not exceed 90 mm, but can reach 110-130 mm.
Coat color ranges from almost pure white through various shades of brown, cream, and ocher to gray, brown, and black. Coat color variation tends to increase at a higher latitude. Coat color differences between the sexes, which is largely absent, though females may have a red tone. Fur color does not seem to serve the purpose of camouflage, with some members concluded that the colors blended more to do with emphasizing certain movements for interaction. Black colored wolves (which occur through wolf-dog hybridization) rarely occur in Eurasia, where interactions with domestic dogs has been reduced over the last thousand years for reducing the populations of wild wolves. Black specimens are more common in North America, with about half of the wolves in Yellowstone National Park to be black.