Eagle Java (Nisaetus bartelsi) is one of the endemic species of eagle size in Java. Animals considered synonymous with the emblem of the Republic of Indonesia, Garuda. And since 1992, is hereby designated as a mascot bird endangered Malaysia
Eagle medium to large sized, slender, with a body length of 60-70 cm (from tip of beak to tip of tail).
Head reddish brown (Kadru), with a prominent high peak (2-4 hairs, up to 12 cm) and neck yellowish brown (gold sometimes visible when exposed to the sun). Crest black with white tips; crown and black mustache, dark brown while the back and wings. Whiteness by line (actually a line) in the middle longitudinal black throat. Down to the chest, black streak scattered pale brownish yellow color, which in the end at the bottom again transformed into a pattern of lines (snippet) sawomatang meeting until the brownish red cross hairs pale white belly and legs. Feathers on the legs near the extremity near the base of the finger. Tail dark brown with four lines and a clear cross wide at the bottom, the tail end of the thin white lines. Females are the same color, a little larger.
Iris yellow or brownish, blackish half, sera (meat in the bottom half of the) yellow, foot (finger) yellow. Young bird with head, neck and the underside of the body light cinnamon brown, with no scratches or lines.
When you fly, eagle eagle eagle similar Java (Nisaetus cirrhatus) light design, but tend seem more brownish, with stomach look darker and slightly smaller.
A high shrill voice, repetitive, or ii klii-iiw-iiiw, varied between one and three syllables. Or high-pitched voice and quickly KQ-KQ-KQ-KQ-KQ In a way, this is similar to the eagle hawk his voice sound even though the differences are quite clear in his tone.
Distribution, Ecology and Conversation
Limited the spread eagle on the island of Java, from west (Park is home) to the eastern end of the peninsula Blambangan Purwo. However, distribution is now limited in the area of primary forest and wooded hills in the area at the turn of the low plains to the mountains. Some were found in the southern part of the island of Java. Presumably these birds living specializing in the incline.
Java eagle as tropical rain forest ecosystem that is always green, in the lowland, and in places higher. Starting from the area close to the beach as in Ujung Kulon and Meru Betiri, to the forests and mountains to an altitude of 2200 meters and sometimes 3000 meters above sea level.
In general live eagles jawa difficult to achieve, though not always far from human activity. Presumably this bird is highly dependent on the existence of primary forest as a place of life. Although the eagle was found that the use of secondary forests as hunting and nesting, but located close to the primary forest.
Birds of prey that hunt from perches high in the trees in the forest. With fast and agile prey attacking various branches of trees or on the ground that, as a wide variety of reptiles, birds similar Walik, pigeons, and even chickens. Also small mammals such as squirrels secondary and squirrels, bats, raccoons, monkeys reach of children.
Spawning period recorded from January to June. Nest is set high pile of leafy twigs, made in branches high above the ground 20-30. Eggs of a point, which was incubated for approximately 47 days.
Nest tree is kind of tall forest trees, such as Rasamala (Altingia excelsa), pairs (Lithocarpus sundaicus), tusam (Pinus), flowers (Schima wallichii), and ki sireum (Eugenia clavimyrtus). Not always deep in the forest, a distance of only a few nests found 200-300 m from the recreation.
Habitat, spread eagle Java rare. So even though the share of regional total only about 137-188 pairs of birds, or the estimated number of individuals ranged from 600 to 1000 tail hawks. small populations face the greatest threat to sustainability, because of habitat loss and exploitation genre. Illegal logging and forest conversion into agricultural land has reduced the primary forest cover in Java. Meanwhile, the eagles continue to be the hunted to be traded on the black market as pets. Because of its scarcity, the bird seems to defend the pride, and in turn make this bird soaring prices.
Given the small population, limited distribution and high-pressure region faced, the global conservation organization IUCN including Java eagle into the status of EN (Endangered, threatened). Similarly, the Government of Indonesia to set as protected by law.