Asian or Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east. Three subspecies are recognized - Elephas maximus maximus from Sri Lanka, the Indian elephant or E. m. indicus from mainland Asia, and E. m. sumatranus from the island of Sumatra. Asian elephants are the largest land animals that live in Asia.
Since 1986, E. maximus were registered as endangered by IUCN as the population has declined at least 50% for three latest generation, it is estimated 60-75 years. This species is so threatened by pre-loss of habitat, removal and fragmentation. In 2003, the wild population is estimated at between 41,410 and 52,345 people. Female Captive elephants have lived more than 60 years when stored in a seminatural situation, such as forest camp. At the zoo, the elephants die at a much younger age and declining due to low birth and high mortality rates.
In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on the head. The back is convex or level. Small ears with folded lateral dorsal border. Have up to 20 pairs of ribs and tail bones 34. Feet have more nail-structure as compared with African elephants - five on each front foot and four on each hind leg.
As is the case with large animals, the dimensions of the Asian elephants are often exaggerated, on average, male shoulder height rarely exceeds 2.7 m (9 ft) and that of female, 2.4 m (8 ft). The average female height is 2.24 m (7.3 ft), and the average weight 2.72 t (3.00 short tons) rarely exceeding 4.16 t (4.59 short tons). Bulls great weight until 5.4 t (6.0 short tons) and 3.2 m (10 feet) at the shoulder. Length of body and head including the trunk is 5.5 to 6.5 m (18-21 ft) with tail 1.2 to 1.5 m (3.9 to 4.9 ft) long. The largest male elephant ever recorded was shot by the Maharajah of Susang Garo Hills in Assam, India, in 1924, weighing 8 tons (8.8 short tons), standing 3.35 m (11 ft) high at the shoulder and 8.06 m (26 , 4 ft) long from head to tail, There are reports from the greater height 3.7 m (12 ft) .
Skin color is usually gray in color, and can be closed by the ground as dust and wallow. Move their wrinkled skin and contains many nerve centers. This is more subtle than African elephants, and can depigmentasi on the trunk, ears, or neck. Epidermis and dermis of the body average 18 mm (0.71 in) thick, the skin on the dorsum is 30 mm (1.2 in) thick providing protection against bites, bumps, and adverse weather conditions. Folds that increase the surface area for heat dissipation. They can live in the cold better than excessive heat. Skin temperature varies from 24 to 32.9 ° C (75 to 91 ° F). Average body temperature is 35.9 ° C (96.6 ° F).