The African Leopard (Panthera pardus pardus) is a leopard subspecies occurring in most of sub-Saharan Africa. In 2008, leopards classified as Near Threatened IUCN, said that they will soon qualify for Vulnerable status due to habitat loss and fragmentation. They are becoming increasingly rare outside protected areas. Tendency population declined.
African Leopards show a great variation in coat color, depending on location and habitat. The coat color varies from pale yellow to brownish yellow or gold, and sometimes black, and patterned with black roses, while the head, lower leg and stomach looks with solid black color. Greater male leopards, the average 60 kg (130 lb) to 91 kg (200 lb) be the maximum weight attained by men. Women weighing about 35 to 40 kg (77-88 lb) on average.Between 1996 and 2000, 11 adult leopards radio-necked in Namibia farmland. Men weighed 37.5 to 52.3 kg (83-115 lb) only, and women from 24 to 33.5 kg (53-74 lb).
Leopards inhabit the mountains of Cape Province appear physically different from leopards further north. Their average weight may be only half of the more northern leopard.
Used African leopards occur in most of sub-Saharan Africa, occupying good rain forests and arid desert habitats. They are found in all habitats with annual rainfall above 50 mm (2.0 in), and can penetrate areas with less than this amount of rainfall along the river flow. They revolve very up to 5,700 m (18,700 ft), was seen in the high slopes of the Ruwenzori and Virunga volcanoes, and observed when drinking hot water 37 ° C (99 ° F) in the Virunga National Park.
They appear to be successfully adapted to the changing natural habitats and living environment without persecution. There are many records of their presence near major cities. But already in 1980, they have become rare in much of West Africa. Now, they remain patchily distributed in North Africa limits.In history, small relict populations remain in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.
African leopards inhabited a variety of habitats in Africa, from mountain forests to grasslands and savannas, including only very sandy desert. They are the most at risk in the area of semi-desert, where the rare resources often leads to conflict with farmers, nomads and their livestock.
Leopards are generally most active between sunrise and sunset, and kill prey more current. In the Kruger National Park, leopards, male and female cheetah with her relatively more active at night than solitary females. The highest level recorded for daytime activities leopards using thorn bushes during the rainy season, while impala are also using them.
They have a remarkable ability to adapt to changes in the availability of prey, and have a very broad pattern of eating. Small prey taken where large ungulates less common. Victims range from leopard known dirt to Elands adult beetles, which can reach 900 kg (2,000 lb). In sub-Saharan Africa, at least 92 prey species have been documented in their diet, including rodents, birds, small and large antelopes, hyraxes and hares, and arthropods. They generally focus their hunting activity on locally abundant secondary ungulata species in 20 to 80 kg (44 to 180 lb) range, while opportunistic take another victim. Average distance between ungulata kill ranged between seven and 12 to 13 days.
In Serengeti National Park, leopards are radio-mobilized for the first time in early 1970. They hunt at night was tough to watch, the best time to see them after dawn. From their 64 day shoot only three are successful. In the forest, they preyed mostly in impala, both adults and youth, and the deer a few Thomson in the dry season. Sometimes, they managed to hunt wild boar, sister-sister, Reedbuck, Duiker, calves Steenbok, and reindeer hats, jackal, rabbit, guinea fowl and starlings. They were less successful in hunting zebra, kongonis, giraffe, fox, genet, hyraxes and small birds. scavenging from large animal carcasses comprise a small portion of their food. In tropical rain forests in Central Africa, their food consists of small duikers and primates. Some individual leopards have shown a strong preference for pangolins and porcupines.
Leopard-men often kill large cache in a tree, the behavior of the great strength required. There are several observations leopards transporting young giraffe carcass, estimated to weigh up to 125 kg (280 lb), which is 2-3 times the weight of leopards, up to 5.7 m (19 feet) into the tree.
Their diet includes reptiles, and they will occasionally take domestic livestock when other foods are scarce. Leopards are very hidden and as close trailing and running with a relatively short distance after their prey. They kill by suffocation by grabbing their prey by the throat and bite with their powerful jaws. They rarely fight other predators for their food.