Bottle dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common member and well-known family Delphinidae, the family of marine dolphin. Recent molecular studies show the genus contains two species, common bottle dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and the Indo-Pacific bottle dolphin (Tursiops aduncus), instead of one. Study in 2011 revealed a third species, Burrunan dolphin (Tursiops australis). They inhabit warm seas and being around the world.
Bottle dolphins usually live in clusters of 10-30 members, called pods, but group size varies from single individuals up to more than 1,000. Their diet consists mainly of fish food. Dolphins often work as a team to harvest fish schools, but they also hunt individually. Dolphins use echolocation to find survivors, which is similar to sonar. They emit sound pressing and listen to Echos back to determine the location and shape of the side items, including potential prey. Bottle dolphins also use sound for communication, including creaking and whistles emitted from the spray holes and the sound emitted through body language, such as leaping from the water and slapping their tails on the water surface.
There is a lot of research intelligence dolphin bottle. The study of dolphin mimikri bottles were examined, the use of artificial language, object categorization and self-recognition. Their great intelligence has driven interaction with humans. Dolphin bottle popular from aquarium events and television programs such as Flipper. They have also been trained by the military to locate sea mines or detecting and marking enemy divers. In some areas, they work with local fishermen by driving fish into their nets and eating the fish that escape. Some encounters with humans that is harmful to the dolphins: people hunt them for food, and dolphins killed accidentally as bycatch of tuna fishing.
They are gray, varying from dark gray at the top near the dorsal fin to the gray that is very light and almost white at the bottom. Countershading this makes them difficult to see, both from above and below, when swimming. Adult length ranges between 2 and 4 meters (6.6 and 13 ft), and weigh between 150 and 650 kilograms (330 and 1,400 lb). Men, on average, slightly longer and much heavier than females. In most of the world, the length of an adult is approximately 2.5 m (8.2 ft), with a weight range between 200 and 300 kilograms (440 and 660 lb). Their size varies with habitat. Except in the eastern Pacific, dolphins in the warm, shallow waters tend to be smaller than cold, pelagic waters. A study on the Moray Firth in Scotland, the population of dolphins second most northerly in the world, recorded an average adult length of just under 4 m (13 ft) compared to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) on average in a population off the coast of Florida.
Bottle dolphins can live for more than 40 years. However, a study of the population off Sarasota, Florida shows the average age of 20 years or less.
Physilogy and Sense
In cold waters, they have more body fat and blood, and more suitable to dive deeper. Typically, 18% -20% of their body weight is fat. The bulk of research in this area has been blocked North Atlantic Ocean . Bottle dolphins usually swim at 5-11 km / h (1.4 to 3.1 m / s), but was able to spray up to 29-35 km / h (8.1 to 9.7 m / s). Higher speeds can only be sustained for a short time.
Dolphins search for food aided by the form of sonar known as echolocation: they look for things to produce a voice and listen to Echos. A broadband explosion clicking sound pulses emitted in the figure is focused in front of the dolphin. To listen to the echo back, they have two small ear openings behind the eyes, but most sound waves sent into middle ear through the lower jaw. As an interesting object approached, the echo grows harder, and dolphins adjust by decreasing the intensity of the emitted sound. (This contrasts with bats and sonar, which reduce sensitivity of the sound receptor.) Interclick interval also decreases as the animals approached the target. Proven, dolphins wait echo each click before pressing again. Echolocation details, such as signal strength, high spectral, and discrimination, well-understood by researchers. Dolphin bottle also able to extract information form, indicating they are able to form "echoic image" or sound picture of their target.
Dolphins have sharp eyesight. Points located on the sides of the head and have a tapetum lucidum, or reflecting membrane, behind the retina, which aids vision in dim light. Horseshoe-shaped pupils, slit-fold allows the dolphins to have good vision both in air and under water, despite the different densities of these media. When under water, eyeball lens serves to focus light, whereas in the environment air, light, usually works for special pupils contract, until the sharpness from a smaller aperture (similar to a pinhole camera).
Instead, this bottle olfactory sense is poor, because its blowhole, analogue to the nose, closed and open only when the water to breathe. These have no olfactory nerves or olfactory lobe of the brain. Bottle dolphin can detect salty, sweet, bitter (quinine sulfate), and acid (citric acid) tastes, but this has not been well studied. Anecdotes, some animals in captivity have been recorded have the option of fish consumption, although it is unclear whether these mediate taste preference.
Bottle dolphins communicate through burst pulsed voice, whistles, and body language. Examples of body language include leaping out of the water, broken jaws, slapping tails on the surface and head butting. Voice and movement help detect other dolphins in the group, and to take other dolphins to danger and sustenance. Less vocal cords, they produce sounds using six air bags near their blow hole. Each has animals, uniquely identify frequency modulation-narrow-band vokalisasi signature (signature whistle).
Researchers from the Bottlenose Dolphin Research Institute (BDRI), based in Sardinia (Italy) is now shown whistles and burst pulsed very important voice for animal social life and mirror their behavior.
Tonal whistle voice (the most melodious) allow dolphins to keep in touch with each other (above all, mothers and children), and to coordinate hunting strategies. Blast-beat sound (which is more complex and different from the whistles) are used "to avoid physical aggression in situations of high excitement", such as when they compete for the same piece of food, for example. Dolphins emit shrill voices when in front of other people moving toward the same victim. The "dominant" one will move away to avoid confrontation.
Other communication uses about 30 distinguishable voice, and even well-known proposed by John Lilly in the 1950s, no "dolphin language" were discovered. However, Herman, Richards, and Wolz show artificial language comprehension by two dolphins bottle (named Akeakamai and Phoenix) in the period following the skepticism toward animal language critic Herbert Terrace.